>> Over 4.9 million foreign citizens were enrolled on municipal population registers at the beginning of 2014, the equivalent of 8.1 percent of the total number of residents, showing an increase of 3.7 percent as against 2013 and net of the revision due to population recalculation after the Census. The geographical distribution of  foreign citizens arriving in Italy is not homogeneous, since they have tended to settle mainly in the Centre and North area.

>> On 1st January 2014, there were over 3 million 800,000 non-Eu citizens legally residing in Italy, an increase of about 110,000 in comparison to the previous year. Between 2012 and 2013  Italy registered a decrease in new inflows of non-Eu citizens, equal to 3.2 percent. The decrease in new permits has affected women (-5.0 percent) more than men (-1.4 percent). New permits issued for work increased by 19.3 percent, while the number of new permits for family and for asylum and humanitarian reasons declined to a lesser extent (- 10.0 and -16.5 percent respectively).

>> Non-national foreign population (aged 15-64) shows similar level of education to nationals. In 2013 half non-nationals hold only lower secondary school leaving certificate, while 40.4 percent hold upper and post-secondary school graduates (as against 36.9 percent in 2005) and 9.5 percent a university degree.

>> Non-national labour force represent 11.2 percent of the total labour force and over 60 percent reside in the North area of the country. The inactivity rate among the non-national population was nearly 8 percent lower than by Italian population (29.7 percent against 37.3 percent).Conversely, the employment rate for non-nationals is higher than for Italians (61.9 percent in comparison with 59.5 percent), as is the unemployment rate (17.3 percent and 11.5 percent, respectively).